Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the name for a collection of lung diseases including chronic bronchitis, emphysema and chronic obstructive airways disease.

People with COPD have difficulties breathing, primarily due to the narrowing of their airways, this is called airflow obstruction.

Typical symptoms of COPD include:

  • increasing breathlessness when active
  • a persistent cough with phlegm
  • frequent chest infections

Read more about the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Why does COPD happen?

The main cause of COPD is smoking. The likelihood of developing COPD increases the more you smoke and the longer you’ve been smoking. This is because smoking irritates and inflames the lungs, which results in scarring.

Over many years, the inflammation leads to permanent changes in the lung. The walls of the airways thicken and more mucus is produced. Damage to the delicate walls of the air sacs in the lungs causes emphysema and the lungs lose their normal elasticity. The smaller airways also become scarred and narrowed. These changes cause the symptoms of breathlessness, cough and phlegm associated with COPD.

Some cases of COPD are caused by fumes, dust, air pollution and genetic disorders, but these are rarer.

Read more about the causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Who is affected?

COPD is one of the most common respiratory diseases in the UK. It usually only starts to affect people over the age of 35, although most people are not diagnosed until they are in their 50s.

It is thought there are more than 3 million people living with the disease in the UK, of which only about 900,000 have been diagnosed. This is because many people who develop symptoms of COPD do not get medical help because they often dismiss their symptoms as a ‘smoker’s cough’.

COPD affects more men than women, although rates in women are increasing.


It is important that COPD is diagnosed as early as possible so treatment can be used to try to slow down the deterioration of your lungs. You should see your GP if you have any of the symptoms mentioned above.

COPD is usually diagnosed after a consultation with your doctor, which may be followed by breathing tests.

Read more about diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Treating COPD

Although the damage that has already occurred to your lungs cannot be reversed, you can slow down the progression of the disease. Stopping smoking is particularly effective at doing this.

Treatments for COPD usually involve relieving the symptoms with medication, for example by using an inhaler to make breathing easier. Pulmonary rehabilitation may also help increase the amount of exercise you are capable of doing.

Surgery is only an option for a small number of people with COPD.

Read more about treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Living with COPD

COPD can affect your life in many ways, but help is available to reduce its impact.

Simple steps such as living in a healthy way, being as active as possible, learning breathing techniques, and taking your medication can help you to reduce the symptoms of COPD.

Financial support and advice about relationships and end of life care is also available for people with COPD.

Read more about living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Want to know more?

  • British Lung Foundation: COPD

Can COPD be prevented?

Although COPD causes about 25,000 deaths a year in the UK, severe COPD can usually be prevented by making changes to your lifestyle.

If you smoke, stopping is the single most effective way to reduce your risk of getting the condition.

Research has shown you are up to four times more likely to succeed in giving up smoking if you use NHS support along with stop-smoking medicines such as patches or gum. Ask your doctor about this, call the NHS Smoking Helpline on 0300 123 1044 or go to the NHS Smokefree website.

Also avoid exposure to tobacco smoke as much as possible.

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Symptoms of COPD

Symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually develop over a number of years, so you may not be aware you have the condition.

COPD does not usually become noticeable until after the age of 35 and most people diagnosed with the condition are over 50 years old.

See your GP if you have the following symptoms:

  • increasing breathlessness when exercising or moving around
  • a persistent cough with phlegm that never seems to go away
  • frequent chest infections, particularly in winter
  • wheezing

Middle-aged smokers and ex-smokers who have a persistent chesty cough (especially in the morning), breathlessness on slight exertion or persistent coughs and colds in the winter should see their GP or practice nurse for a simple breathing test.

If you have COPD, the airways of the lungs become inflamed and narrowed. As the air sacs get permanently damaged, it will become increasingly difficult to breathe out.

While there is currently no cure for COPD, the sooner the condition is diagnosed and appropriate treatment begins, the less chance there is of severe lung damage.

Read more about treating COPD.


Symptoms of COPD are often worse in winter, and it is common to have two or more flare-ups a year. A flare-up (also known as an exacerbation) is when your symptoms are particularly bad. This is one of the most common reasons for people being admitted to hospital in the UK.

Other signs of COPD

Other signs of COPD can include:

  • weight loss
  • tiredness and fatigue
  • swollen ankles

Chest pain and coughing up blood (haemoptysis) are not common symptoms of COPD. They are usually caused by other conditions such as a chest infection or, less commonly, lung cancer.

Causes of COPD

There are several things that may increase your risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), many of which can be avoided.

Things you can change

You can reduce your risk of developing COPD by not smoking and avoiding exposure to certain substances at work.


Smoking is the main cause of COPD and is thought to be responsible for around 90% of cases. The lining of the airways becomes inflamed and permanently damaged by smoking and this damage cannot be reversed.

Up to 25% of smokers develop COPD.

Passive smoking

Exposure to other people’s smoke increases the risk of COPD.

Fumes and dust

Exposure to certain types of dust and chemicals at work, including grains, isocyanates, cadmium and coal, has been linked to the development of COPD, even in people who do not smoke. 

The risk of COPD is even higher if you breathe in dust or fumes in the workplace and you smoke.

Air pollution

According to some research, air pollution may be an additional risk factor for COPD. However, at the moment it is not conclusive and research is continuing.

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Things you cannot change

There are a few factors for COPD that you cannot change.

Having a brother or sister with severe COPD

A research study has shown that smokers who have brothers and sisters with severe COPD are at greater risk of developing the condition than smokers who do not.

Having a genetic tendency to COPD

There is a rare genetic tendency to develop COPD called alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. This causes COPD in a small number of people (about 1%). Alpha-1-antitrypsin is a protein that protects your lungs. Without it, the lungs can be damaged by other enzymes that occur naturally in the body.

People who have an alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency usually develop COPD at a younger age, often under 35.

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Diagnosing COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is usually diagnosed after a consultation with your GP, as well as breathing tests.

If you are concerned about the health of your lungs and have symptoms that could be COPD, see your GP as soon as you can.

Being diagnosed early means you will receive appropriate treatment, advice and help to stop or slow the progression of COPD.

At a consultation, your doctor will ask about your symptoms, how long you have had them, and whether you smoke, or used to smoke. They will examine you and listen to your chest using a stethoscope. You may also be weighed and measured to calculate your body mass index (BMI).

Read more about BMI or use a BMI calculator.

Your doctor will also check how well your lungs are working with a lung function test called spirometery.


To assess how well your lungs work, a breathing test called spirometry is carried out. You will be asked to breathe into a machine called a spirometer.

The spirometer takes two measurements: the volume of air you can breathe out in one second (called the forced expiratory volume in one second or FEV1) and the total amount of air you breathe out (called the forced vital capacity or FVC).

You may be asked to breathe out a few times to get a consistent reading.

The readings are compared with normal measurements for your age, which can show if your airways are obstructed.

Other tests

You may have other tests as well as spirometry. Often, these other tests will help the doctor rule out other conditions that cause similar symptoms.

Chest X-ray

A chest X-ray will show whether you have another lung condition which may be causing symptoms, such as a chest infection or lung cancer.

Blood test

blood test will show whether your symptoms could be due to anaemia, as this can also cause breathlessness.

Further tests

Some people may need more tests. The tests may confirm the diagnosis or indicate the severity of your COPD. This will help you and your doctor plan your treatment.

Electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram

An electrocardiogram (ECG) or echocardiogram may be used to check the condition of your heart.

An ECG involves attaching electrodes (sticky metal patches) to your arms, legs and chest to pick up the electrical signals from your heart.

An echocardiogram uses sound waves to build a detailed picture of your heart. This is similar to an ultrasound scan.

Peak flow test

To confirm you have COPD and not asthma, you may be asked to take regular measurements of your breathing using a peak flow meter, at different times over several days. The peak flow meter measures how fast you can breathe out.

Blood oxygen level

The level of oxygen in your blood is measured using a pulse oximeter, which looks like a peg and is attached to the finger. If you have low levels of oxygen, you may need an assessment to see whether extra oxygen would help you.

Blood test for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

If the condition runs in your family or you developed the symptoms of COPD under the age of 35 and have never smoked, you will probably have a blood test to see if you are alpha-1-antitrypsin deficient.

Computerised tomography (CT) scan

Some people may need a CT scan. This provides more information than an X-ray and can be useful in diagnosing other lung diseases or assessing changes to your lungs due to COPD.

Other breathing tests

If your symptoms seem worse than would be expected from your spirometry results, your doctor may decide you need more detailed lung function tests. You may be referred to a hospital specialist for these tests.

Phlegm sample

The doctor may take a sample of phlegm (sputum) to check whether it has been infected.

Treating COPD

Stop smoking

Stopping smoking is the most effective way for people with COPD to help themselves feel better and is the only proven way to reduce the rate of decline in lung function.

Stopping smoking at an early stage of the disease makes a huge difference. Any damage already done to the airways cannot be reversed, but giving up smoking can slow the rate at which the condition worsens.

If COPD is in the early stages and symptoms are mild, no other treatments may be needed. However, it is never too late to stop smoking. Even people with fairly advanced COPD are likely to benefit from quitting, which may prevent further damage to the airways.

Research has shown you are up to four times more likely to give up smoking successfully if you use NHS support along with stop-smoking medicines such as tablets, patches or gum. Ask your doctor about this or go to the NHS Smokefree website.

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If an inhaler is prescribed for you, your GP, practice nurse or pharmacist can explain how to use it. They will check you are using it properly.

Most people learn to use an inhaler successfully, but if you are having problems, a spacer or a different type of inhaler device may help you take your medicines correctly. A spacer is a device that increases the amount of medication that reaches the lungs.

Short-acting bronchodilator inhalers

Short-acting bronchodilator inhalers deliver a small dose of medicine directly to your lungs, causing the muscles in your airways to relax and open up.

There are two types of short-acting bronchodilator inhaler:

  • beta-2 agonist inhalers, such as salbutamol and terbutaline
  • antimuscarinic inhalers, such as ipratropium

The inhaler should be used when you feel breathless and this should relieve the symptoms.

Long-acting bronchodilator inhalers

If a short-acting bronchodilator inhaler does not help relieve your symptoms, your GP may recommend a long-acting bronchodilator inhaler. This works in a similar way to a short-acting bronchodilator, but each dose lasts for at least 12 hours.

There are two types of long-acting bronchodilator inhalers:

  • beta-2 agonist inhalers, such as salmeterol, formoterol and indacaterol 
  • antimuscarinic inhalers, such as tiotropium, glycopyronium and aclidinium

Steroid inhalers

Steroid inhalers, also called corticosteroid inhalers, work by reducing the inflammation in your airways.

If you are still getting breathless or having flare-ups even when taking long-acting bronchodilator inhalers, your GP may suggest including a steroid inhaler as part of your treatment. Most people with COPD will be prescribed a steroid inhaler as part of a combination inhaler.


Theophylline tablets

If you are getting breathless or having flare-ups when using a combination of inhalers, your GP may prescribe theophylline tablets. Theophylline causes the muscles of your airways to relax and open up.

When you have been taking theophylline tablets regularly, you may need to give a blood sample to measure the amount of theophylline in your blood and help your GP prescribe the appropriate dose of tablet. This will allow you to get the correct dose of theophylline while reducing the likelihood of side effects.

Due to the risk of potential side effects, such as increased heart rate and headaches, other medicines, such as a bronchodilator inhaler, are usually tried before theophylline.

Mucolytic tablets or capsules

Mucolytics, such as carbocisteine, make the mucus and phlegm in your throat thinner and easier to cough up. They are particularly beneficial for people with a persistent cough with lots of thick phlegm or who have frequent or bad flare-ups.

Antibiotics and steroid tablets

If you have a chest infection, your GP may prescribe a short course of antibiotics.

Steroid tablets may also be prescribed as a short course if you have a bad flare-up. They work best if they are taken as the flare-up starts, so your GP may give you a course to keep at home. Occasionally, you may have to take a longer course of steroid tablets. Your GP will give you the lowest effective dose and monitor you for side effects. Side effects are uncommon if steroid tablets are given for less than three weeks.

Read more about the medicines used in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease medicines guide.

Other types of treatment

Nebulised medication

Nebulised medication can be used for severe cases of COPD if other inhaler devices have not worked effectively. A compressor is a machine that administers nebulised medicine through a mouthpiece or a face mask. The medicine is in a liquid form and is converted into a fine mist. This enables a large dose of medicine to be taken in one go.

You can usually choose whether to use nebulised medication with a mouthpiece or a facemask. Your GP will advise you on how to use the machine correctly.

Long-term oxygen therapy

If the oxygen level in your blood is low, you may be advised to have oxygen at home through nasal tubes, also called a nasal cannula, or through a mask. Oxygen is not a treatment for breathlessness, but it is helpful for some patients with persistently low oxygen levels in the blood.

You will probably be referred for more detailed assessment to see whether you might benefit from long-term oxygen therapy.

If you are prescribed long term oxygen therapy, it must be taken for at least 15 hours a day to be effective. However, the longer you use it, the more effective it is.

The tubes from the machine are long so you will be able to move around your home while you are connected. Portable oxygen tanks are available if you need to use oxygen away from home.

The aim of long-term oxygen therapy is to extend your life.

Do not smoke when you are using oxygen. The increased level of oxygen produced is highly flammable, and a lit cigarette could trigger a fire or explosion.

Ambulatory oxygen therapy

Part of the oxygen assessment is likely to consider if you may benefit from ambulatory oxygen – oxygen used when you walk or are active in other ways.

If your oxygen levels are normal while you are resting, but fall when you exercise, you may not need long-term oxygen therapy alongside ambulatory oxygen therapy.

Read more about home oxygen treatment.

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV)

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) helps a person breathe using a portable machine connected to a mask covering the nose or face. You may receive it if you are taken to hospital because of a flare-up. You may be referred to a specialist centre to see if home NIV could help you. NIV is used to improve the functioning of your lungs.

Pulmonary rehabilitation programmes

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a programme of exercise and education designed to help people with chronic lung problems. It can increase your exercise capacity, mobility and self-confidence.

Pulmonary rehabilitation is based on a programme of physical exercise training tailored to your needs. It usually involves walking or cycling, and arm and strength-building exercises. It also includes education about your disease for you and your family, dietary assessment and advice, and psychological, social and behavioural changes designed to help you cope better.

A rehabilitation programme is provided by a multidisciplinary team, which includes physiotherapists, respiratory nurse specialists and dietitians.

Pulmonary rehabilitation takes place in a group and the course usually lasts for about six weeks. During the course, you will learn more about your COPD and how to control your symptoms.

Pulmonary rehabilitation can greatly improve your quality of life.

Living with COPD

Healthy living


People with COPD who exercise or keep active regularly have improved breathing, less severe symptoms and a better quality of life.

For most people with COPD who are disabled by their breathlessness, a structured programme of pulmonary rehabilitation provided by experienced healthcare professionals does the most good. Getting breathless is unpleasant but it isn’t harmful. Every patient should exercise as much as they can, however limited that may be, twice a day. Even chair-bound people can do some arm and upper-body movements.

Research shows that pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity, breathlessness and health-related quality of life. It results in people seeing doctors less often and spending less time in hospital.

Maintain a healthy weight

Carrying extra weight can make breathlessness worse. Therefore, it is a good idea to lose weight if you are overweight. This can be difficult because the breathlessness caused by COPD can make it hard to exercise.

However, some people with COPD find that they lose weight. Eating food high in protein and taking in enough calories is important to maintain a healthy weight.

Research has shown that people with COPD who are underweight will have fewer COPD symptoms if they increase their weight.

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Breathing techniques

There are various breathing techniques that some people find helpful for breathlessness. These include breathing control, which involves breathing gently, using the least effort, with the shoulders supported. This can help when people with COPD feel short of breath.

Breathing techniques for people who are more active include:

  • relaxed, slow deep breathing 
  • breathing through pursed lips, as if whistling 
  • breathing out hard when doing an activity that needs a big effort
  • paced breathing, using a rhythm in time with the activity, such as climbing stairs

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Talk to others

If you have questions, your GP or nurse may be able to reassure you. You may find it helpful to talk to a trained counsellor or psychologist, or someone at a specialist helpline. Your GP surgery will have information on these.

Read about counselling and psychiatry.

Some people find it helpful to talk to other people who have COPD, either at a local support group or in an internet chat room.

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Relationships and sex

Relationships with friends and family

Having a chronic illness such as COPD can put a strain on any relationship. Difficulty breathing and coughing can make people with COPD feel very tired and depressed. It is also inevitable that their spouse, partner or carer will feel anxious or frustrated about their breathing problems. It is important to talk about your worries together.

Being open about how you feel and what your family and friends can do to help may put them at ease. But do not feel shy about telling them that you need some time to yourself, if that is what you want.

Your sex life

As COPD progresses, the increasing breathlessness can make it difficult to take part in activities. The breathlessness may occur during sexual activity, which may mean your sex life can suffer.

Communicate with your partner and stay open-minded. Explore what you both like sexually. Simply touching, being touched and being close to someone helps a person feel loved and special.

Your doctor, nurse or physiotherapist may also be able to suggest ways to help manage breathlessness during sex.

Want to know more?


If you have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are planning to fly, go to your GP for a fitness-to-fly assessment. This involves checking your breathing using spirometry and measuring your oxygen levels.

Before travelling, remember to pack all your medication, such as inhalers, in your hand luggage.

If you are using oxygen therapy, tell your travel operator and airline before you book your holiday, as you may need to get a medical form from your GP. If you are using long-term oxygen therapy, arrange to take an adequate oxygen supply with you abroad.

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Money and financial support

People with COPD often have to give up work because their breathlessness stops them from doing what they need to do for their job. This can cause financial pressure.

There are several benefits for which people with COPD may be eligible:

  • If you have a job but cannot work because of your illness, you are entitled to Statutory Sick Pay from your employer.
  • If you do not have a job and cannot work because of your illness, you may be entitled to Employment and Support Allowance.
  • If you are caring for someone with COPD, you may be entitled to Carer’s Allowance.
  • You may be eligible for other benefits if you have children living at home or if you have a low household income.

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End of life care

COPD is a serious condition. At least 25,000 people die each year from the end stages of COPD.

As with other conditions that cannot be reversed or cured, it is important to receive good care at the end of life. Talking about this and planning it in advance can be helpful. This is called palliative care.

It can be difficult to talk about dying with your doctor and, particularly with family and friends, but many people find that it helps. Support is also available for your family and friends.

It may be helpful to discuss which symptoms you may have as you become more seriously ill, and the treatments that are available to reduce these.

As COPD progresses, your doctor should work with you to establish a clear management plan based on your and your carer’s wishes. This will include whether you would prefer to go to hospital, a hospice or be looked after at home as you become more ill.

You may want to discuss drawing up an advance decision, also called a living will, which sets out your wishes for treatment if you become too ill to be consulted. This might include whether you want to be resuscitated if you stop breathing, and whether you want artificial ventilation to be continued.

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‘I thought, I can either be miserable or I can live life to the full’

Lynn Ashton was having a happy Christmas dinner until a candle set her plastic tablecloth alight.

“We were taking a break after the main course when one of my children said she could smell something funny,” says Lynn.

“I rushed into the dining room to find the plastic tablecloth and the dining room in flames. I threw the tablecloth on to the patio, but by then I had inhaled a lot of toxic fumes.”

She sat outside trying to get her breath. Initially, she didn’t go to the doctor. But over the next few weeks, her breathing got worse. She was already an asthmatic and smoked around 15-20 cigarettes a day.

“I spent the next four months in and out of hospital with chest infections,” says Lynn. “At times, my breathing was so bad I could barely bend down to tie my shoelaces.”

Lynn was diagnosed with COPD and bronchiectasis, an abnormal widening of the air sacs in the lungs. It was a shattering blow and she stopped smoking immediately. Lynn was determined to stay strong. Her daughter was pregnant with her first grandchild.

“My prognosis wasn’t good at first,” she says. “I thought, I can either sit around and be miserable or I can live life to the full. I wanted to see my grandchild grow up. I wanted to help other people with COPD. I believe things happen for a reason.” 

Lynn is on a treatment regimen which includes six different drugs and a nebuliser. Two years ago, she had a small catheter fitted which passes from the lower neck into the windpipe and delivers oxygen directly into her lungs. It’s held on by a discreet chain around her neck. “I clean it several times a day and it’s wonderful,” she says.

Lynn now helps other people who have COPD. She joined a local support group in Huntingdon called Hunts Breathe for Life, which she now chairs, and started to raise money for the cause.

“I started off doing some short walks. Then it occurred to me that I’d love to do the London Marathon. I called the British Lung Foundation and they were very enthusiastic and offered me a place. But when I told them I had COPD and was on oxygen, they were rather worried.”

Lynn started her training by walking for just one minute on a treadmill at her local gym. Gradually, under the supervision of her nurse, she increased the time until she was ready to realise her dream.

“It took me five days to finish the marathon,” she says. “I had a trolley to help me walk and had my oxygen with me at all times. Every afternoon I’d go back to the hotel and rest. It was a wonderful experience. I raised over £14,000.”

Lynn believes in living life to the full. “There was a time when I was very angry and that’s normal. I still have bad days. But when I look around, I see that there’s always someone worse off than me.”

‘When I woke up, I could hardly breathe’

With a little help, Eddie Brownlow realised he could manage his COPD and get on with life.

Having served in the navy and the army as a paratrooper, Eddie Brownlow was fit when he left the forces aged 47. However, he had smoked about 15 cigarettes a day for most of his life.

“It was the done thing back then. It relaxed me after a parachute jump,” says Eddie.

After retiring from a second career as a sales manager, Eddie was getting breathless whenever he had to lift something heavy or exert himself. He ignored the fact that he was feeling a “bit puffy” all the time and carried on.

However, by 1998, he couldn’t ignore it any more. “We were in Mexico on holiday and I had booked a marlin fishing trip,” says Eddie. “But when I woke up, I could hardly breathe. Luckily I recovered, but when I got back home I picked up a chest infection.”

He went to his GP, who referred him to hospital. He was diagnosed with COPD. He followed a rehabilitation programme, which he describes as excellent. He learned about his medication, how to exercise and how to improve his diet.

Eddie says, “I realised there was no need to panic. You just need to learn to manage your condition. There’s advice available.”

One important thing Eddie knew he had to do was give up smoking. It took him quite a while, but with patches, advice and support from his wife, he finally kicked the habit.

He also got involved with his local British Lung Foundation group, Breathe Easy, a voluntary organisation that supports people with breathing conditions such as COPD. Within a few months of joining, he took over his group and built up the membership.

Eddie now makes it his job to raise awareness of breathing conditions and, through his efforts, the town’s mayor selected his branch of Breathe Easy as his chosen charity recently.